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The Observer Pattern in JavaScript explained

The Observer Pattern is a popular pattern used across all sorts of JavaScript applications. The instance (subject) maintains a collection of objects (observers) and notifies them all when changes to the state occurs. Does that sound difficult to you? Yes, it was upsetting me as well when I came across this pattern for a first time. A tiny practical example may help you to grasp the concept.

Imagine that you have to update multiple elements simultaneously when some event occurs (typing inside the input field perhaps). You need to be able to add more (subscribe) elements that react (observe) to a change of an input value. Removing subscriptions (unsubscribe) can be handy if you no longer need to broadcast state changes to a particular object. Do you get the idea now? Let’s code it!

// define a class
class Observable {
  // each instance of the Observer class
  // starts with an empty array of things (observers)
  // that react to a state change
  constructor() {
    this.observers = [];

  // add the ability to subscribe to a new object / DOM element
  // essentially, add something to the observers array
  subscribe(f) {

  // add the ability to unsubscribe from a particular object
  // essentially, remove something from the observers array
  unsubscribe(f) {
    this.observers = this.observers.filter(subscriber => subscriber !== f);

  // update all subscribed objects / DOM elements
  // and pass some data to each of them
  notify(data) {
    this.observers.forEach(observer => observer(data));

The use-case example goes like this…

// some DOM references
const input = document.querySelector('.js-input');
const p1 = document.querySelector('.js-p1');
const p2 = document.querySelector('.js-p2');
const p3 = document.querySelector('.js-p3');

// some actions to add to the observers array
const updateP1 = text => p1.textContent = text;
const updateP2 = text => p2.textContent = text;
const updateP3 = text => p3.textContent = text;

// instantiate new Observer class
const headingsObserver = new Observable();

// subscribe to some observers

// notify all observers about new data on event
input.addEventListener('keyup', e => {

With a little help of a few control buttons (added to make the demo more interactive), it gives you the power to do cool things like this with just a few lines of code. Isn’t it nice?

See the Pen XaVRyY by Pawel Grzybek (@pawelgrzybek) on CodePen.

This very simplified version of the observer pattern can save you from downloading some costly frameworks like Vue or React. If you are looking for a detailed explanation of it, I can’t recommend enough “Learning JavaScript Design Patterns” by Addy Osmani. Classic! Sometimes “Publication / Subscription” is used interchangeably to describe this pattern, although there are some minor differences between them and Addy points them all out in his book. Hopefully this article helped you out. Until next time curious people :-)

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